Il testo completo della relazione presentata al 74° Congresso Mondiale della Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internazionalis.
Sorrento, 25-28 Settembre 2019
QUANTUM FIELD THEORY: A NEW PARADIGM IN LIFE SCIENCES AND HOMEOPATHY
Bruno Vittorio Galeazzi, MD, MFHom. Homeopathic physician. firstname.lastname@example.org
Antonio Manzalini, PhD, Member of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Independent researcher. email@example.com
At the beginning of the 20thcentury, Paul Ehrenfest coined for the first time the term “ultraviolet catastrophe” referring to the fact that the Rayleigh–Jeans law accurately predicts experimental results at electromagnetic frequencies below 105GHz, but begins to diverge with empirical observations as these frequencies reach the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This was meaning that the laws of classical electromagnetism failed to describe theoretically an experimentally observed phenomenon.
Max Planck solved the problem for the intensity of the spectral distribution function assuming that the electromagnetic radiation can be emitted or absorbed only in discrete packets, called quanta of energy. Planck introduced the idea that interactions between matter and electromagnetic radiation of frequency vare quantized, occurring only in integer multiples of hv, where his the fundamental Planck constant. Five years later, Einstein further developed the notion of energy quantization by extending it to include the photon, a quantum of light.
Modern Medicine is based on the atomistic paradigm of classical physics and biochemistry in whichmatter is infinitely fragmented in a myriad of tiny components, atoms and molecules, gluedtogether in the condensed state, liquid or solid, by forces of
electrostatic nature which, due to the electrical neutrality of matter, have a very small range, comparable to the size of the components, in the scale of Angstroms. In such a view, all that pertains to life is analyzed in terms of the electrostatic interactions among the atomic-molecular components.
As argued by Giuliano Preparata, molecular biology assumes that each mechanism of biological interaction is so highly selective due to the mutual recognition that the molecular participants owe to well defined spatial configurations, as depicted by the well-known metaphor of the key and the keyhole. The expression of the genetic code in the production of aminoacids and then of proteins is all based on such mechanism, like all other biochemical events of the cell. In such molecular traffic, ChanceandNecessity, as argued by Monod, play alternate roles.
Unfortunately, this view and the expectations based upon it, show very wide gaps and inconsistencies. First of all, the idea of the key and the keyhole is untenable. While the Necessityin the interaction key-keyhole, receptor-ligand, doesn’t present any conceptual difficulty, it is in the Chancethat shows an unsustainable inconsistency.
When dealing with millions of different keys and keyholes how can it happen that diffusive dynamics, totally random, of the molecular components can in reasonable times bring that key (among millions of others) in contact with that keyhole (among millions of others)? The times involved in a diffusive dynamics are very long for the extreme slowness of the Brownian motion of large molecules within the cell (for a typical diffusion constant of 10-10cm2/sec it takes about 10 seconds for a molecule to cross a medium sized cell). The experimental evidence is totally contrary to such key point of the paradigm of molecular biology.
As we have seen above, biochemical reactions in the living organisms are an unquestionable experimental fact but, from a theoretical point of view, the complex phenomenon of biochemical interactions in living organisms cannot be explained by short range electrostatic interactions between molecules and casual brownian motions.
The ultraviolet catastrophe was solved with the quantization of the electromagnetic radiation, but the paradoxes and antinomies of Quantum Mechanics (QM), as emerged from the Copenhagen interpretation, didn’t allow that revolutionary scientific worldview to override the new atomistic and biochemical paradigm in which living sciences have been constrained for the past one hundred years. QM has been used to describe the behavior of subatomic particles whilst the macroscopic dimension of condensed matter and living organisms has continued to be described as aggregates of atoms and molecules subject to electrostatic forces in a deterministic environment and the organism as a whole has been reduced to the sum of its parts, as if it were an electrostatic meccano.
Materials and Methods
Quantum Field Theory (QFT), a theoretical and experimental framework overcoming the limitations of Quantum Mechanics, presents itself as a realistic avenue capable of resolving the conventional inconsistent explanation for the highly and timely ordered biochemical interactions in living organisms. Its precise mathematical formalism and experimental validations offer a revolutionary systemic and scientific approach to reality and life sciences.
According to David Tong, professor of theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge, QFT is the language in which the laws of Nature are written.
QFT has brought to unification the wave-particle dualism leveraging on the assumption that the dynamics of quantum particles are necessarily connected to their environment. Quantum particles are excited states of underlying fields, such as gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear fields, and matter fields. In simple words, quantum particles are like ripples of a corresponding field: for example, photons are ripples of the EM field; electrons and protons are ripples of the matter field.In other words, quantum particles are states with energy levels greater than a ground state (i.e., called vacuum). In QFT any quantum system is represented by a wavefunction , which is a complex quantity with an amplitude 0and a phase φ that governs its rhythm of oscillation: if the phase φ is sharply defined for all the particles of the system, then the system is called “coherent”.
As shown by Hepp and Lieb in the ’70 for the laser model of Dicke and fifteen years later, more in general, by Giuliano Preparata, any system of identical atoms and molecules above a given density and below a given temperature (depending on the particular system) goes over to a state that is totally different from what is predicted by today’s condensed matter theory. Its nature is akin to the state of the atoms of a laser oscillating in phase and in tune with an electromagnetic field that resonates at their frequency, thus generating a radiation that is coherent both spatially and temporally.
Whilst the laser needs an external energy source, the pump, and an optical cavity, the coherent state predicted by the analysis of quantum electrodynamics emerges spontaneously provided two collective thermodynamical variables are in the appropriate range, as happens in ordinary condensed matter.
The atomic-molecular system that above the critical temperature has the chaotic features of a gas, in the coherent state acquires the typical characters of a macroscopic wave, described by an amplitude and a phase, varying with continuity in space and time; therefore, arises a network of interactions where what happens in a small local point involves the behavior of matter in a macroscopic spatial region and not only the few atoms that surround that point.
In living systems, water appears to be the best candidate with the right molecular characteristics able to assemble in coherent structures (coherence domains, CDs) under the influence of the electromagnetic field and vector potential and suitable to be carrier of information that can instantaneously inform all the organism through the modulation of the phase of the CDs.
There are several evidences that coherence, as explained by quantum electrodynamics in condensed matter, plays a key role in living organisms.
For instance, the very high efficiency of photosynthesis cannot be explained with a classical modeling. On the other hand, a quantum model of photosynthesis can explain it. The model is based on the presence of coherent excitons (electron–hole pairs) capable of harvesting light quanta energy and of funneling them at specific sites in the shortest possible time interval.
Already fifty years ago, H. Fröhlich had elaborated the concept of quantum coherence as an inherent property of living cells, used for long-range interactions such as synchronization of cell division processes.We recall that a coherent system is characterized by a single rhythmic oscillation, let’s say a unique phase, φ. This phase is indeed the expression of the fact that all the components of the quantum system are correlated over long distances. This has important consequences, for example in the phase transitions of systems: for example, that the states of coherent systems can be characterized, by looking at the phase, φ, as a single macroscopic observable, a so-called order parameter. This is like saying that, coherence allows a transition of the description of a system from the microscopic-scale to the macroscopic one. That’s why we can consider living organisms as quantum systems: they are made of quantum matter, obviously, but coherence allows us to describe their quantum properties at the macroscopic scale.
These premises allow to elaborate a mathematical model, where organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, up to a whole organism, are characterized by their own specific wave functions, whose phases are perfectly orchestrated in a multi-level coherence oneness. Should the organism, or some of its components, lose its rhythm or phase, then the oneness of the multi-level coherence is broken and a disease appears.
What emerges from the new coherent solutions of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a completely new world, where the little balls-atoms become true matter waves, capable to interact collectively andnot locally, sensitive to time-dependent electromagnetic perturbations with which they resonate when certain frequencies happen to belong to their spectrum. A new scenario thus opens, where a new dimension, the electromagnetic one, gets unveiled and with it a hoard of new mechanisms of interaction and order for matter systems, living and inanimate. In particular the oscillation phase of the new coherent states introduces a fascinating new element, capable to suffer modulations of high physical relevance through totally negligible energy exchanges: we are here in the domain of subtle energies as traditionally described in some alternative and complementary therapies.
From the theoretical foundations of QFT and QED we propose a new model where multi-layered coherent structures of living organisms are driving the biochemical processes under the influence of coherent electromagnetic fields and potentials.
The model proposed can be seen as a unification model explaining both the highly organized biochemical reactions in space and time and the mechanism of action of therapies based on an energeticintervention, as traditionally defined.
If the state of health can be seen as a ground state (an attractor in the phase-space) characterized by a right level and distribution of coherent structures, then disease may occur as a consequence of a break of symmetry of the healthy coherent state, under the influence of internal or environmental causes.
In such a new comprehensive paradigm homeopathy finds its obvious reason of existence.
The preparation of homeopathic medicines can be easily explained through the induction of a coherent state of water molecules strongly shaken and the transferral of the information stored in the CDs of water, to the living system.
Let’s see in a nutshell how this is happening. Quanta of information (called Nambu-Goldstone bosons) are stored in the CDs and, through the vector potential of the electromagnetic field, can resonate with the multi-layered coherent domains of the living organism, thus provoking a turmoil in the dynamics of the attractors’ forces, a breaking-restoration of symmetry, allowing the living organism to restore the coherent state of health.
The homeopathic medicine is therefore a coherent assemble of water molecules (CDs) interspersed within free water molecules. More than a hundred of scientific papers shows that homeopathic medicines display different physicochemical characteristics when compared to bulk water; such characteristics are supported by the coherent domains of water.
Lo at al. in a paper published in 2009 showed the experimental evidence for the existence of stable-water-clusters at room temperature and normal pressure.
Non-local phenomena, as explained in QFT in terms of field interactions, can give account for some awesome phenomena in the therapeutic interaction between therapist and patients, and between coherent informational medicines and patients.
We have displayed some of the potentialities of QFT in the explanation of the dynamics of living organisms, in health and disease.
The new paradigm shift from classical biochemistry to QFT and QED, based on the new physics of water, on the coherence in condensed matter as well as in cells and tissues of the organism and on the interaction of very weak magnetic fields in the ions’ system of the cells was scientifically developed and strongly supported by Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000) in his last valuable paper “QED & Medicine”.
The authors express their gratitude to the seminal works of brilliant researchers like Herbert Frohlich, Giuliano Preparata and Emilio Del Giudice and many others.
The body of scientific knowledge and experimental evidence accumulated in the last decades is so robust to allow the foundation of a new and more realistic paradigm overcoming the limitations of molecular biology.
As a matter of fact, molecular biologyis a discipline abstracting phenomena at the level of the four fundamental forces in Nature: Gravitational force, Weak Nuclear force, Electromagnetic force and Strong Nuclear force. The Weak and Strong Nuclear forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles. Gravity and Electromagnetic force have larger ranges. Therefore, it makes sense directing future biological researches deep inside the laws of Nature, addressing the ways these fundamental forces are governing also the living matter.
The new paradygm allows the unificationof two apparently incompatible approaches in life sciences; both the highly ordered biochemical reactions in living organisms and the mechanism of action of alleged information / energy therapies like homeopathy, find an explanatory common ground in the informative and guiding action of the electromagnetic field and potential as explained by QFT and QED.
A bridge of coherent interactionbetween physicists, biologists, psychologists and physicians is required in order to fully develop the new theoretical building in the Science of Life.
Quantum Field Theory; coherence domains, NG bosons, symmetry, homeopathy
Aharonov Y, Böhm D. Significance of EM potentials in quantum theory. Phys. Rev. 1959; 115: 485–491
Al-Khalili J, McFadden J. Life on the edge: The coming age of quantum biology. New York: Crown; 2015
Apostol M. Coherence domains in matter interacting with radiation. Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 379–384
Arani R., Bono I., Del Giudice E., Preparata G. QED Coherence and the Thermodynamics of Water, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B Vol. 09, No 15 (1995) 1813-1841
Bischof M, Del Giudice E, Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach. Molecular Biology International, Volume 2013, Article ID 987549,
Bischof M. Introduction to Integrative Biophysics. in: Popp, Fritz-Albert / Beloussov, Lev V. (eds.): Integrative Biophysics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2003, pp.1-115. ISBN 1-4020-1139-3.
Brizhik L.S, Del Giudice E, Maric-Oehler W, Popp F-A, Schlebusch K-P. On the dynamics of self-organization in living organisms. Electromagn. Biology and Medicine. 28(1), 28-40 (2009)
Brookes JC. 2017 Quantum effects in biology: golden rule in enzymes, olfaction, photosynthesis and magnetodetection. Proc. R. Soc. A 473: 20160822.
Del Giudice E, Preparata G. A new QED picture of water: Understanding a few fascinating phenomena. In Macroscopic Quantum Coherence; Sassaroli, E., Srivastava, Y., Swain, J., Widom, A., Eds.; World Scientific: Hackensack, NJ, USA, 1998; 108–129
Frohlich H. Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems. Int J Quantum Chem 1968; 2:641-649
Ho M. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice. Electromagn Biology and Medicine, 34:2, 113-122 (2015)
Ho M. The Rainbow and the Worm. The Physics of Organisms 3rd ed., World Scientific, NJ, 2008
Lloyd S. Quantum coherence in biological systems. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 2011, 302, 012037
McFadden J, Al-Khalili J. 2018 The origins of quantum biology. Proc. R. Soc. A 474: 20180674.
Marais A et al. 2018 The future of quantum biology. J. R. Soc. Interface 15: 20180640.
Mohseni M, Omar Y, Engel G, Plenio M.B. Quantum Effects in Biology. Cambridge University Press, 2014. 978-1-107-01080-2
Preparata G., QED & Medicine, in Rivista di Biologia, pag. 470-481; 3-2000
Preparata G. QED Coherence in Matter; World Scientific: New Jersey, NJ, USA/Singapore, Singapore/London, UK, 1995
Salari V, et al. Plausibility of Quantum Coherent States in Biological Systems. 2011 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 306 012075